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二语课堂教学 Class Teaching in Second Language Acquisition

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二语课堂教学 Class Teaching in Second Language Acquisition

Suzie Butler holds in her video of A Guide to Becoming A Teacher that teaching English as a second language course is widely available and it’s usually best to do a college based course perhaps than an online one, to get a more formal qualification. She accentuates the importance of class teaching and how to become a qualified English teacher in other countries. Craig (2004) argued that class teaching, as the second language context, highlights both the content of second language and the medium of instruction (p.2). So classing teaching accounts a lot in second language acquisition, especially in teaching method, teaching content and teaching feedback to render students shift from Chinese Thinking Pattern to English Thinking Pattern.

    To a large extent, effective teaching methods enhance the students ' enthusiasm especially with good-designed program and activities. Different teaching activities contribute a lot to language maturity in the different stage. For example , Craig (2004) indicated that paronomasia enables students to fully participate in teaching activities so as to impress their understanding of vocabulary and memory improvement is achieved(p.4). Class teaching is divided into formal and informal way. The former includes lectures, seminar and the latter group discussion and even intimate conservation between teachers and students. Both of them provide a wholesome surrounding for language acquisition and they emerge themselves in language context totally and get rid of Chinese Thinking Pattern. Min-Zhan Lu (1987) showed that his English development was due to the conflict that teachers provided in class(p.445).Now in information society, computer multimedia technologies and networking technologies are booming. And their introduction in class activities, undoubtedly, make positive effects on the transform of education thought, deepening reform of foreign language teaching and quality of teaching. Language teachers can take advantage of the favorable conditions of the computers with growing popularity to encourage students to use online resources and a large amount of accessible information in English,which visually guides the student to estrange from Chinese Thinking Pattern. Self-study can be made by students through text-related CD. They practice reading, study the text to check the background knowledge and word interpretation. Listening, reading and writing also become possible. Skill training, self-testing check, and feedback and the like are becoming the main part of modern class teaching. Meanwhile the theoretical basis of English grammar, English learning is combined with practice and applied to daily life. For most of English-learning students from China, spoken English is overwhelmingly difficult because exam-oriented education, the pith of Chinese education, compels students to abandon personality thought, imagination and creativity, only focus on examination. Then teachers ought to vigorously advocate quality-oriented education and revise the Chinese Thinking Pattern in learning English. Min-Zhan Lu (1987) said his verbal English was promoted by restate and speak out his only thought(p.445).Additionally, it is more beneficial for second language acquisition with instruction from teachers than just exposure to natural language context, in which in default of teacher’s monitor and instruction, learning consciousness is limited and periodical study exists without consecutive reviewing and reciting. Students are forced to think in English logic with teachers’ supervision. In contrast with natural language context, the biggest advantage of class teaching lies in teaching, namely the input of second language.
The acquisition is directly linked with the language content, for instance, the input of grammar, volume of vocabularies and actual language utilization. Aya & Paul (2010) held that it is complicated to apply specific pedagogical means to different classes. Class, the core unit of teaching, is composed of fixed number of students in similar age and knowledge level. Disparity exists between classes and students, according to which class teaching should be tailored to in accommodation with individualities. However, second language acquisition entails grammar, no matter descriptive grammar or prescriptive grammar (p.371). As is known, language is constituted with elements (sounds, morphology and lexis). It is reasonable that Craig (2004) told language input assisted students to identify and distinguish elements with sufficient information and how English words pronounce and arrange together to constitute sentences and the difference between English and Chinese words. The point is that teaching content should be in accordance with the students’ learning situation. For example, in China, College English Test, Band 4 is basic in college graduation. Then complex grammar structure as well as the language phenomenon is not essential, let alone oral English while in developed cities, such as Shanghai, spoken English is high-profile as a result of booming economy and a myriad of foreigners. Both of them learn English in Chinese Thinking Pattern and never transform to English Thinking Pattern. Min-Zhan Lu (1987) thought that his English knowledge is reinforced in class (439). Chinese students are familiar with the words in test papers but do not grasp the origin of words and the English culture. Desire to pass examination results in “touch the society” and “long time no sees” in Chinese thinking, so comprehensive content is necessary to the full knowledge of English. There is a case .Along with the nature of being comprehensible in language context, the significance of accuracy and correction is beyond expression.
Timely and effective feedback adds some incentive to English learning. Bill & Jessica (2007) showed explicit and implicit feedbacks exist and recent research indicates positive evidence and negative feedbacks (p.185). There is a common phenomenon in China that English teaching is considered “Duck-stuffing” type of teaching because students feeling and interaction between students and teachers is excluded in class. Craig (2004) pointed out an idea that the successful second language acquisition entails feedbacks to activate classroom atmosphere and lead students to recognize their mistakes (p.14). A complete learning process includes information absorption, output information and feedback and evaluation on the learning outcomes. It is difficult for Chinese students to write in English Thinking Pattern so teachers should know how to collect information about students ' thing level. Also what is essential to keep in mind is psychological factors in that the face-to-face criticism of students’ errors on the use of English and inappropriate feedback will hurt the self-esteem of students (Rod, 2003). Also Feedback evaluation should be of artistic quality. Single feedback form and evaluation method, in a short time may effect well but in a long term, it is not conducive to arouse the enthusiasm of students' study. Therefore, teachers should pay attention to the diversity of feedback form. Class observation, class questions, class exercises should be used to get information feedback and at the same time according to the different questions and students, various forms of feedback are employed to inspire and mobilize students' learning enthusiasm. 
In a nutshell, as is shown in the video of Suzie Butler, class teaching is indispensable and as the main way to impart knowledge it should combine English with intellectual development and logical thinking together and also teachers should qualify themselves in teaching method, teaching content and teaching feedback. Although it is arduous to totally change the Chinese Thinking Pattern, but specific strategies should be investigated. Advanced technology application in class, equilibrium between writing, speaking, listening and reading should be kept and effective feedback highlighted. So I agree with Craig (2004) that classing teaching, namely the instructional language context, L2 classroom and tutoring interaction is very important in second language acquisition (p.11).
 
Reference 
Bill Van Patten & Jessica Williams.(2007).Theories in Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction.pp77-208
Craig. (2004) .Second Language Classrooms: Research on Teaching and Learning. The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge . pp5-20
Min-Zhan Lu.(1987). From Silence to Words:  www.dxlwwang.com/thesis/  Writing as Struggle. National Council of Teachers of English.Vol. 49, No. 4 . pp437-448
Ruth Spack .(2007). Guidelines: A Cross-Cultural Reading/Writing Text .Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Date. Part Two.pp46-52
Suzie Butler.(2011). A Guide to Becoming A Teacher. [Video file]. 

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