首页 >  留学生论文 > thesis >   正文

爱丁堡大学thesis文献综述:关于中文文化教育的现状和未来Lite

添加时间:2014-03-14 14:16:07   浏览:次   作者:代写论文网
专业论文资料, 搜索论文发表论文代写论文网为你解忧愁!详情请咨询我们客服。
获取免费的论文资料? 欢迎您,提交你的论文要求,获取免费的帮助

Literature review

 

In this literature review, it firstly introduced the research aim of this dissertation. Then, it was from the definition of culture-education, the significance of culture-education, the framework of culture-education to review relevant literatures about the current situation of culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities. Finally, it summarized the content of this chapter and pointed out the theoretical research significance of this dissertation.
Research aims and objectives
The aim of this paper is to explore the current situation and further development of culture-education in colleges and universities in China, based on the research aim as well as Phakiti and Li’s (2011), Crossman and Kite’s (2007) research findings, the following objectives have been formed.
·From the angle of words to discuss the current situation of culture-education in English teaching in colleges and universities in China;
·From the perspective of text structure to explore the current situation of culture-education in English teaching in colleges and universities in China;
·To bring forward recommendations on culture-education in English teaching in colleges and universities in China

 

Definition of culture-education

 

Culture is considered as the sum of human knowledge and behavior. In general, culture refers the sum of material production and its products, as well as spiritual production and its products. Culture in narrow sense refers to the sum of science, technology, philosophy, religion, custom, literature, art, religion, ability, morality, etc., it represents people's way of life, code of conduct, values, thinking habits. There are many definitions for culture education, one of the most widely accepted view is what Callahan et al. (2009) have proposed. They (Callahan et al., 2009) considered that culture education pays attention human formation and development, it not only concerns a learner's knowledge, learning activities, but also pays more attention to the significance and value of knowledge learning for itself. It is committed to the realization of human self-cognition, self-understanding and self transcendence, eventually reaching the ultimate goal of education. Paige et al. (2012) defined culture learning as the process of acquiring the culture-specific and culture-general knowledge, skills, and attitudes which are required for effective communication and interaction with individuals from other cultures. They (Paige et al., 2012) thought that it is a dynamic, developmental, and ongoing process relating to the learner cognitively, behaviorally, and affectively.

 

Significance of culture-education

 

Positive significance of culture-education
Ilieva (2000) mentioned that language is deeply rooted in cultural reality and customs of people of certain nation. Studies on a language can not be inseparable from a broad language environment. Paige et al. (2012) thought that the meaning of language is inseparable from language environment, to understand certain utterance, it should first understand the cultural background and the way of life of the person’s. Firth (1950) further emphasized, to analyze a word needs to analyze the sentence it belongs to, to understand the sentence depends on understanding the situation or occasion, and the understanding of the occasion depends on analysis of the culture that it is from. The mutually interdependent and influencing relationship between language and culture are more obvious in communication between people with different cultural backgrounds. To truly master a language we must understand the language of the particular social background, otherwise we cannot truly master the language. Ishii and Brunrau (1994) were through studying education in Japan to find that culture-education has received unquestioned, near-sacrosanct status. Ilieva’s (2000) research results showed that culture-education is beneficial for developing the ways for students come to understand themselves and their world, and the ways they can act in it. Berish and Thibaudeau (1992a) believed that culture-education can help students to better integrate into a community to help students with gaining confidence and motivation to use English.

 

Negative significance of culture-education

 

Ilieva’s (2000) research suggested that in the process of English teaching, there are some problems existing in culture-education. For example, cultures are shaped as the monolithic, static entities rather than dynamic, fluid entities. Ilieva’s (2000) pointed out that this phenomenon is related to and political factors. Earlier models (Brooks, 1975) tended to define culture as a relatively invariant and static entity which was composed by accumulated, classifiable, observable, thus eminently teachable and learnable “facts”. Guest (1997) pointed out that too much emphasis on detailing differences may lead to cross-cultural paralysis, when members of a culture who are sensitive to perceived differences begin to interact with members of another culture, there might be a minefield of potential problems and it is not worth the risk. Kubota (1999) took much EFL/WSL scholarship as endorsing fixed, static notions of culture essences that reflect more colonial discourses than culture realities. Paige, et al. (2012) considered that this view paid attention to behavior of surface level and failed to notice the underlying value orientations, neither did it realize the variability of behavior in the target cultural community, the participative role of the individual in the creation of culture, or the interaction of language and culture in the making of meaning (Moore, 1991). According to the above analysis, goals of culture-education have been transformed. The major transformation includes the shift from cultural stereotypes to cultural generalizations, cultural absolutes to cultural variations, and culture as distinct from language to culture as integral to language.
Framework of culture-education
Content of culture-education in teaching can be divided into the following aspects:
Vocabulary
Phakiti and Li (2011) studied to find out that as there are differences in geography, folklore, religion, values and other aspects between different nationalities, for words which express a same idea, under the influence of their unique cultures, there will have additional different association of ideas based on their own concepts of the words. Failing to understand their cultural meanings or associative meanings will lead to failure in understanding their deep meanings. In certain situations, there will be cultural mistakes, because similar words may have a positive meanings for people of one nationality while for the other, they may be pejorative.

 

Text structure

 

Crossman and Kite (2007) analyzed that since different cultures have different values and ways of thinking, their discourse structures will also vary, which brings people with different cultural backgrounds great difficulties in communication. For people who learn  a foreign language, despite they have mastered the grammatical rules of the target language, a lack of understanding or sensitivity towards the organization rule of a text often leads to their unconscious migration of their native organization rule to the target language, thus resulting in communication failures caused by discourse structure differences.
Characteristics of culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities 
Education in Chinese universities and colleges is basically exam-oriented education. As examination-oriented education carries out teaching activities based on exams, it pays more attention to strengthening teaching of training. Therefore, scores become standards to measure students' English levels, in teaching process, teachers focus on cultivating students’ skills in dealing with exams, students are busy preparing for exams, leading to hysteretic teaching goals. This concept limits teaching methods, making foreign language teaching which takes improving students’ quality as its purpose be restricted by exam-oriented education. Under such circumstance, students’ capacity of dealing with exams has been improved, but they show poor skills in using the language in communication. Carder (2008) argued that this situation results from cultural differences. He (Carder, 2008) pointed out that difficulties in Chinese students studying a foreign language is not due to lack of language knowledge, but failure in understanding the mode of thinking and the social culture background of people's of the target language country. Some students have very good pronunciation, intonation, a large number of vocabularies and learn syntax well, but they fail to have an English mode of thinking, with a typical Chinese thinking to translate an English sentence directly, which does not meet English language habits, leading to the so-called Chinglish and influencing normal communication. Phakiti and Li (2011) pointed out that, learning a foreign language must understand its culture to some extent, despite the fact that it is the culture of a country where you have never been to. Carder (2008) and Chau et al. (2011) were from three aspects to analyze the current situation of culture-education in Chinese universities and colleges. Firstly, cultural factors in the field of teaching in Chinese universities and colleges have not received due attention as what they should gain, teachers often do not treat teaching students professional knowledge and cultural knowledge equally, cultural knowledge has usually been ignored. Secondly, in teaching activities, students have over-reliance on teachers and lack f learning initiative. Current examination-oriented education in China makes students rarely make use of their spare time to read books about cultural knowledge, most of their time is spent on coping with exams. Finally, current university textbooks in China mostly lay particular stress on the education of professional knowledge, they ignore or neglect the transfer of communicative cultural knowledge, these textbooks are only suitable for examination-oriented education.

 

Argumentation

 

The importance of culture-education in the process of ESL education has been paid attention by majority of scholars. However, it has been found that in education practice that there are also some problems in the process of culture- education, the most prominent problem is that culture is portrayed as a monolithic, static entity rather than a dynamic, fluid entity. Currently, people generally believe that culture-education is a dynamic, developmental and ongoing process which engages the learner cognitively, behaviorally, and affectively. For the study of culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities, it is mainly related to research on two levels. First of all, it should understand whether culture-education has been introduced to English teaching in Chinese colleges and Universities, which will be acquired through understanding the college students’ levels of cultural knowledge. Then, it should explore whether the English teaching in Chinese colleges and universities helps to shape culture-education as a dynamic, fluid entity, it is mainly understood by learning the teachers’ teaching situation.

 

Summary 

 

The above research results showed that in the process of English teaching, culture-education is helpful to improve students’ ability of mastering and using English for communication, at the same time, there are also some adverse effects existing in culture-education in English teaching. In general, most scholars supported and affirmed the important role of culture-education in the course of English teaching. In the process of English teaching, the content of culture-education is mainly related to two aspects: vocabulary and text structure. In terms of current situation of culture-education in foreign language teaching in Chinese universities and colleges, its main characteristics are performed as that Chinese English education pays more attention to the instruction of language knowledge while ignores the teaching of cultural knowledge, one of the consequences is that students can have a lot of language knowledge but they do not have corresponding ability of communication in English. In addition, it should also be noteworthy that, as what Ilieva (2000) mentioned, because of differences existing in attributes of various cultures, the impact of culture-education on English Teaching is also different. Most of the above studies did not take Chinese students as research objects, therefore, to apply the research results of the above studies to English teaching in Chinese universities and colleges is not necessarily right. Therefore, the theoretical significance and innovation of this article rested on that it discussed the impact of culture-education on English teaching in Chinese colleges and universities, which was more conducive for bringing forward reasonable recommendations and measures on English teaching in Chinese college and universities. Studies in the past only analyzed whether it was necessary to use culture-education in English teaching. In this study, it will not only explore the necessity of using culture-education in English teaching, but also pay attention to whether the levels of culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities is line with requirements of English teaching, relevant recommendations will also be put forward based on this point.

 

Research methodology

 

Whole research procedure
In this paper, it will take an empirical study as the research philosophy, it is hoped to identify the empirical evidence of the current situation of culture-education in Chinese universities and colleges on the basis of relevant theoretical studies. Deduction will be used as its research approach, the research design of this study is based on the deduction of relevant theories. Researches on culture-education in America and some European countries are mature, these theories have summed up some common principle that culture-education should follow. Therefore, it can be deduced that culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities should also meet the common principles that these theories require. This study will from two aspects to explore the current situation of culture-education in English teaching in Chinese colleges and universities. On the one hand, it is from the perspective of college students to understand the current situation of cultural knowledge of Chinese college students; on the other hand, it is from the perspective of English teachers to understand the levels of culture-education of Chinese colleges and universities. At last, it will combine with relevant theories and the results of this study to bring forward recommendations on culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities

 

Research approach

 

In this article, a combination of quantitative research and qualitative research methods was used to play their strengths and compensate for their weaknesses (Saunders, et al., 2007), so as to make the research results of this study more reliable. The quantitative research method used in this dissertation was questionnaire and the qualitative research method adopted was interview.
The whole research procedure of this study will be divided into two steps. In this dissertation, it will first investigate the status of Chinese college students' level of cultural knowledge by using a questionnaire. Then, an interview with English teachers in Chinese colleges and universities will be used to understand the current situation of culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities. By doing so, it is beneficial for understanding the causal relationship between culture-education in Chinese colleges / universities and the college students’ the level of cultural knowledge, so as to better sum up the characteristics of culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities. The participants of this study will include the author, two assistants and research objects of this study. The author will mainly be responsible for the overall design, implementation and planning of the study. The assistants will deal with some auxiliary work and help the authors to complete the research program. The research objects of the questionnaire will be students in grade one and two from Beijing Normal University and Capital Normal University. The interview objects will be English teachers from Beijing Normal University and Capital Normal University, the entire questionnaire and interview process will be completed within a month.

 

Questionnaire

 

In this dissertation, it will be mainly through questionnaires to investigate Chinese college students' cultural knowledge. The adoption of questionnaires has the following advantages. Firstly, questionnaires can break through time and space constraints to investigate a large number of respondents in a wide range, which is the biggest advantage of questionnaires. Secondly, anonymity is another advantage of questionnaires, it enables research objects express their ideas more authentically, which allows researchers to get more realistic answers. Thirdly, questionnaires are in favor of saving manpower, time and money. The objects of the questionnaire will be students in grade one and two from Beijing Normal University and Capital Normal University. There will be a total of 100 respondents. The questionnaires will be distributed and taken back through using emails. The content of the questionnaire will be determined mainly according to Phakiti and Li’s (2011), Crossman and Kite’s (2007) recommendations, it will be from vocabulary, text structure to investigate Chinese college students' cultural knowledge.

 

Interview

 

This article aims to understand related issues of culture-education in Chinese colleges and universities through an interview. The reasons for adoption of interview lies in that, interview has the following advantages (Saunders, et al., 2007): firstly, it is able to obtain more detailed and comprehensive information in-depth. Secondly, it is able to learn respondents’ psychological activities and ideas. Thirdly, it further understands the background for occurrence of a behavior and the broad determinants that influence the behavior. Fourthly, researchers have more opportunities to share and learn about respondents’ viewpoint. In this dissertation, it will adopt a semi-structured interview. Although the interview controls the interviewer structure to some extent, the respondents still have greater space to express their views and opinions freely. Semi-structured interview can not only avoid the lack of flexibility and failure in discussion of a problem in structured interview, but also avoid unstructured interview’s time-consuming, laborious defects and other difficulties in analysis. Therefore this article will take a semi-structured interview to collect data. The interview objects will be English teachers from Beijing Normal University and Capital Normal University, there will be a total of 6 objects, the interview of each time lasted 15-30 minutes. This interview will be based on the adoption of recommendations of relevant scholars’, from vocabulary, text structure to explore Chinese college students’ current situation of culture-education.

 

Data analysis

 

In this study, the main statistical tool used for quantitative data will be SPSS16.0. The statistics will be conducted through two steps. First of all, it will test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Reliability testing will be carried out through using the inter-item consistency method, by adoption of SPSS to calculate Cronbach’s α, if α> 0.6, it indicates that the reliability of the questionnaire is qualified (Creswell, 2003). In this study, it will make use of expert method to test the content validity of the questionnaire.Then, analysis of variance will be used for statistical process of relevant data, if P <0.05, it shows that there is a statistical significance, each data will be expressed by means ± standard deviation (Creswell, 2003).
A comparative study approach will be used for dealing with data acquired in the interview. In addition, to acquire a more in-depth understanding of culture-education issues in Chinese colleges and universities, not only a longitudinal study approach will be used to understand the characteristics and history of Chinese culture-education, but also a cross-sectional approach will be adopted to explore the differences and similarities in cultural education between contemporary Chinese universities and the western universities, so as to make appropriate recommendations on cultural education for Chinese colleges and universities in future according to the comparison results.

 

Ethic

 

Before collecting data for this study, I will ask relevant departments for permission. Each respondent of the questionnaire will be informed in advance about the purpose, nature and contents of the questionnaire. They will be given opportunity to choose to participate or not in this survey. Each participant's personal information and privacy will not be disclosed. Researchers will be based on a rigorous, honest, and serious approach to process the research data and results of this study to ensure the correctness, truthfulness and credibleness of the research results.
 

 

References

 

Berish, I. & Thibaudeau, S. (1992a). Canadian concepts 3. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall.
Brooks, N. (1975). The analysis of language and familiar cultures. Lincolnwood, IL: National
Textbook.
Callahan, R., et al. (2009). ESL placement and schools: effects on immigrant achievement. 
Educational Policy, 3(23): 355 - 384.
Carder, M. (2008). The development of ESL provision in Australia, Canada, the USA and England, with conclusions for second language models in international schools. Journal of Research in International Education, 8(7): 205 - 231.
Chau, J., et al. (2011). ESL readers’ comprehension performance: the Chinese secondary context. ELT J, 11(10): 102-110.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: International Educational and Professional Publisher.
Crossman, J. M. & Kite, S. L. (2007). Their perspectives: ESL students' reflections On collaborative community service learning. Business Communication Quarterly, 7(70): 147 - 165.
Guest, M. (1997). Questioning some sacred cows of culture training. JIAM Journal of Language and Internationalization, 3:31-61.
Ilieva, R. (2000). Exploring culture in texts designed for use in adult ESL classrooms. TESL Canada Journal/ Revue TESL DU Canada, 17 (2): 157-162.
Ishii, S. & Bruneau, T. (1994). Silence and silences in cross-cultural perspective: Japan and the United States. Belmont: Wadsworth, 246-51.
Kubota, R. (1999). Japanese culture constructed by discourses: implications for applied linguistics research and ELT. TESOL Quarterly, 33(1): 9-35.
Moore, J. (1991). An analysis of the cultural content of post-secondary textbooks for Spanish: evidence of information processing strategies and types of learning in reading selections and post-reading adjunct questions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Phakiti, A. & Li, L. (2011). General academic difficulties and reading and writing difficulties among Asian ESL postgraduate students in TESOL at an Australian university. RELC Journal, 11(42): 227 - 264.
Saunders, M., et al. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. England: Essex, Pearson Education Limited.
Paige, R. M., et al. (2012). Culture learning in language education: a review of the literature. Available from: (accessed on 21st   May, 2012). 

提供海量毕业论文,论文格式,论文格式范文,留学生论文,商务报告相关资料检索服务。
本论文由代写论文网整理提供 http://www.dxlwwang.com/
需要专业的学术论文资料,请联系我们客服
本文地址:http://www.dxlwwang.com/thesis/227.html
论文关键字:爱丁堡大学thesis 文献综述 Literature review Culture-education universities in China