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英国论文中的References引用格式参考

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References to the books, articles and journals: (I) Short references and (II ) Full references NB! In your thesis, the font must be Times New Roman, 12 pt, line spacing 1,5
I Short references are used inside the main text of your essay every time you use any direct quotation or make a referring.
1) Direct quotations
Quotation is the exact repetition of someone else's statement in your essay that can be taken from article, book, etc. Quotation marks (“ ”) are punctuations marks used in text to indicate exactly the words of another speaker or writer.
Example:
As Estonian musicologist Urve Lippus has written on that topic: “The breakthrough of modern music came at the end of the 1950s, and was brought about by composers then completing their studies: Veljo Tormis (b 1930), Eino Tamberg (b 1930), Jaan Rääts (b 1932), Arvo Pärt (b 1935) and Kuldar Sink (1942–95).” (Lippus 2001: 342).
Explanation:
Lippus = last name (i.e family name) of the article's author 2001 = year of an article 342 =exact page number of where the quotation was taken from
2) Referring (i.e. Statements which are paraphrased)
Instead of quoting the text of an article exactly, you may also change it, using just the most important ideas of it. This is called referring. The style of making short reference is the same as it was in the case of quotations.
Example:
According to Urve Lippus, Veljo Tormis and Arvo Pärt were among the first modern composers in Estonia at the end of the 1950s (Lippus 2001: 342).
II Full references are presented in the Bibliography list of every research paper, including your final essay. Entries in the Bibliography list should be organized alphabetically according to the authors' last (i.e. family) name.
1) Article in the book, dictionary, collection of articles
Lippus, Urve 2001. Estonia. Art music. – The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
Second edition. Edited by Stanley Sadie. Vol 8. London: Macmillan, pp. 340–342.
Explanation:
Lippus, Urve 2001. Estonia. Art music. – The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
Second edition. Edited by Stanley Sadie. Vol 8. London: Macmillan, pp. 340–342.
Author's last name (i.e. Family name), first name publishing year. Title of the article. – Title of the book. Number of edition (if there are any). Name of the editor (if there are any). Volume's number
(if there are any). Name of the city, where book was printed: Name of the publisher, page numbers 2  of the whole article. If you have used all the book then no page numbers will be are added.
Dahlhaus, Carl 1983. Problems in Reception History. – Foundations of Music History. Translated by J. M. Robinson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 150–165.
Explanation: Name of the translator is important. In this case it was not possible to find out the full first names of Mr/Ms Robinson. So, I presented it J. M.As written in the book. If possible, always try to find the full name of a person.
Beard, David; Gloag, Kenneth 2005. Reception. – Musicology: The Key Concepts. Ed. by David Beard and Kenneth Gloag. London; New York: Routledge, pp. 152–156.
Explanation: If there are two authors of the article, both names should be written and separated with semicolon as shown above: Beard, David; Gloag, Kenneth 2005. In this case you also have to
names for the place wher this book was printed – London; New York.
2) Article in the journal
Burkholder, Peter 1991. Musical Time and Continuity as a Reflection of the Historical Situation of Modern Composers. – The Journal of Musicology. Vol. 9, pp. 412–429.
Explanation: While making the reference to the article from the journal as shown above, the city and the name of the publisher are excluded, volume number is needed, also/or the month of release (January; No 3; XXXIV, etc).
3) Master theses, research papers, etc
Guan, Hailun 2009. Comparison of Versions of Chaconne from Partita No.2 BWV 1004 by J. S.
Bach for Violin Solo and for Classical Guitar. Final Essay. [Manuscript]. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre Explanation: Final essays (Master theses, etc) are always presented in the Bibliography list even if they are actually not published. So, you will add a comment by yourself in square brackets:
[Manuscript].
4) Article in the score:
Braun, Werner 1976. Vorwort. – Johann Valentin Meder. Die beständige Argenia. Partitur. Das Erbe deutscher Musik. Bd 63. Mainz: Schott, S. 3–6.
5) Article in the CD-booklet:
Mitchell, Donald 1995. The Creating of the Eight. – Gustav Mahler. Symphonie No. 8. CD Deutsche Grammophon 445 843-2, pp. 9–12
Internet
Moody, Ivan 1997. The composer and early music. – Goldbergweb [Electronical journal].
< http: //www.goldbergweb.com/en/magazine/essays/1997/12/158 > (20. March 2009)
Deutsch, Diana; Sloboda, John A. 2007. Psychology of music. – The New Grove Dictionary of Music Online, ed. Laura Macy, < http://www.grovemusic.com > (28. December 2009)
3
Rosen, Charles 2002. Should we adore Adorno? – New York Review of Books, October 24,
<http://www.nybooks.com/articles/15769> (09. February 2009)
In case of anonymous author:
O. J's Trumpet Page, < http://abel.hive.no/trumpet/ > (16. December 2011)
The Glenn Gould Foundation, < http://www.dxlwwang.com > (03. May 2012)
References to the Sources
1) Scores
Gustav Mahler. Symphonie No. 8. Revidierte Fassung 1977. Philharmonia Partituren No. 490.
WIEN–London: Universal Edition U.E. 2772.3000
Gustav Mahler. Symphonie No. 8. Revidierte Fassung 1977. Philharmonia Partituren No. 490.
WIEN–London: Universal Edition U.E. 2772.3000
(Name of the composer and composition(s) as written on the score's title page year of the score published (NOT the composing year). Score (Partitur, etc). Name of the city, where score was
published: Name of the publisher and serial number
Explanation: The Name of the composer and the title of the composition(s) have to be written exactly as it is on the score's title page. For example, if the title is in German or Italian you have to write it in German or Italian, not in English.
'''
J. S. Bach. Englische Suiten BWV 806–811 1986 (1958). [Score] Urtext. Nach der handchriftlichen Überlieferung aus Bachs Schülerkreis herausgegeben von Rudolf Steglich. Fingersatz von Hans– Martin Theopold. München: G. Henle Verlag
Explanation: (1958) = edition was first published in 1958, but re-printed in 1986.
'''
Franz Liszt. Les préludes. Sinfonische Dichtung 1978. Partitur. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel Nr.
2175
Within the main text of the essay (“short reference”) you should make a reference to the score as follows:
Example 1: Franz Liszt, Les préludes, bars 5–7.
'''
Beethoven. Drei Klaviersonaten WoO 47 (Kurfürstensonaten) 1978 (1950). Score. München: G.
Henle Verlag 3434346
Example 2: Ludwig van Beethoven, Sonate no2 WoO 47, II movement Andante, bars 22–25.
'''
Puccini. La Bohème. Opera completa per canto e pianoforte 1961 (1896). Score. Reduction for 4
voices and piano by Carlo Carignani. Milano: Ricordi
Example 3: Giacomo Puccini, La Bohème, Mimí's aria Sí, mi chiamano Mimí, 1st Act, bars 1–5
2) Recordings (CD, DVD)
Bach French Suites BWV 812-817 1994. Glenn Gould, recorded in 1973/74. CD Sony Classical SM2K 52 609
Gustav Mahler. Symphonie No. 8 1995. Berliner Philharmoniker, cond. Claudio Abbado. Cheryl Studer, Sylvia McNair,Andrea Rost, Anne Sofie von Otter, Rosemarie Lang, Peter Seiffert, Bryn Terfel, Jan-Hendrik Rootering; Rundfunkchor Berlin, Prager Philharmonischer Chor, Tölzer
Knabenchor. Recorded in Berlin, Philharmonie, Grosser Saal 1994. CD Deutsche Grammophon 445 843-2
Explanation:
Gustav Mahler. Symphonie No. 8 = Name of the composer and title of the CD or titles of compositions recorded
1995 = Year of the release of the CD (after the copyright symbol)
1994 = Recording year
Berlin, Philharmonie, Grosser Saal = Name of the place where the music was recorded Deutsche Grammophon = Name of the recording company
445 843-2 = serial number of the recording companya

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