首页 >  硕士论文 > 英语硕士论文 >   正文

英语硕士论文;英语教师在线合作反思对比研究

添加时间:2017-06-19 20:26:44   浏览:次   作者: www.dxlwwang.com
专业论文资料, 搜索论文发表论文代写论文网为你解忧愁!详情请咨询我们客服。
获取免费的论文资料? 欢迎您,提交你的论文要求,获取免费的帮助

Chapter One Introduction 

 
1.1  Research Background 
In  recent  years,  a  campaign  about  the  teachers’  reflection  and  education  has  been  vigorously  rising worldwide. Reflection is identified as a method that helps teachers have a better understanding about what they  know  and  do  through  a  consideration  of  what  they  learn  in  practice,  and  the  process  places  an emphasis  on  learning  from  doing  (Loughran,  2002).  Reflection  has  been  commonly  considered  a  sign  of excellent teaching and the key element for the teachers' professional growth and development. To explore the theory and practice of reflective teacher education and to train teachers into reflective teachers are the core of teachers’ professionalization. Compared with the foreign country, it can be found that the degree of teachers’ professionalization in China is still at a low level currently.  Traditionally, the teachers reflect individually. Such as writing the reflection journals to capture their thoughts, watching the video record of the class to find the problem. The ultimate  goal of reflection is to solve the problem. But in the process of review, many teachers are not able to find the questions well, and it is  impossible  to  make  an  accurate  evaluation.  So  there  is  a  great  difficulty  of  reconstruction  in  terms  of experience, 1) Because of the lack of theoretical knowledge, the content can not be analyzed in depth; it is difficult  to  find  the  cause  behind  the  problem.  2)  Because  the  lack  of  guidance  and  communication  with instructors, the teachers inevitably suffer the limitations of their thinking. In order to enhance the level of reflection, it needs the power of others. With  the  development  of  the  information  technology  and  the  revolution  of  education,  there  is  a  new vision  for  teachers’  professional  development.  They  have  more  chance  to  get  the  resources  and communicate  with  others.  So  there  are  some  new  approaches  for  reflection.  They  can  reflect  through sending a E–mail to others, writing a web log, discussing the related teaching problems with other teachers on  the  forum,  qq.  In  these  processes,  the  problems  of  reflecting  individually  are  resolved  in  some  extent. These  sustained  dialogue-driven  collaborations  using  Internet  tools  support  and  contribute  to  the scaffolding  of  teachers’  knowledge  (Hawkes,  2000).  
........
 
1.2  Research Significance 
Through  the  analysis  of  the  previous  studies  about  the  reflection,  it  can  be  found  that  collaborative reflection  is  an  effective  way  for  teachers’  professional  development.  At  the  information  age,  there  is  a higher  education  requirements  and  it  needs  to  conduct  a  new  round  of  education  reform.  This  paper explores  the  current  situation  of  teachers’  online  collaborative  reflection.  Specifically,  the  significance  of this  paper  include:  (1)  theoretically,  this  research  enriches  the  teachers'  reflection  and  professional development, and also it is hoped that there are some evidences to support that collaborative reflection is an effective way for facilitating the teachers’ development. (2) Practically, based on the previous studies, this research provides more details about the online collaborative reflection, and digs out the similarities and the differences  of  collaborative  reflection  abroad  and  at  home,  and  this  study  provides  more  guidance  for teaching reflection.  
...........
 
Chapter Two Literature Review 
 
2.1 Collaborative Reflection
Wang  Haiyan  (2010)  defines  that  the  collaborative  reflection  is  in  the  process  of  reflection,  the teachers  need  to  communicate  with  others  to  discuss  about  one  or  more  details.  The  process  of collaborative  reflection  is  defined  as  a  collaborative  critical  thinking  process  involving  cognitive  and affective interactions between two or more individuals who explore their experiences in order to reach new intersubjective  understandings  and  appreciations  (Yukawa,  2006:  206).  Collaborative  reflection  needs communication  among  reflection  partners  to  exchange  experiences,  discuss  perspectives  and  agree  on common solutions (Prilla et al., 2012). In a general, the teachers make a critical thinking together in order to  solve  the  problems  in  the  more  effective  way.  Collaboration  is  a  good  way  in  which  teacher  may consider their beliefs about the teaching, that is to say collaboration contribute to the teachers’ reflection. John  Dewey  introduced  the  concept  of  reflection  into  the  field  of  education,  and  systematically explained it. He supposes the definition of reflection as this: “active, persistent and careful consideration of any  belief  or  supposed  form  of  knowledge  in  the  light  of  the  grounds  that  support  it,  and  further conclusions  to  which  it  leads”  (Dewey,  1933).  He  thinks  that  the  teachers’  reflection  starts  from  the difficulties  and  problems  that  they  encountered  in  teaching.  Such  kind  sense  of  unease  and  uncertainty prompt the teachers analyze their own experience in action or after action. In 1950s, with the development of cognitive psychology, people have a further understanding about reflection. More and more people are concerned  about  the  complex  relationship  between  teachers'  thinking  and  action.  Schon  (1987)  came  up with the definition of reflective practice first. He does not emphasize practitioners’ prediction and control of  practice,  but  their  thinking  way  of  identifying  and  solving  problems  in  the  activity.  As  Fendler  (2003) pointed  out,  Dewey’s  and  Schon’s  understanding  about  reflection  are  contradictory.  While  Dewey emphasizes the scientific rationality of reflective thought, Schon sees it as an artistic and intuitive process. Xiong Chuanwu (1999) thinks the reflection teaching is a process that the teachers continually explore to solve  the  problems  about  themselves,  teaching  aims  as  well  as  teaching  tools,  and  combine  “learning  to teach”  with  “learning  to  learn”  to  improve  teaching  practice  rationality  and  make  themselves  become scholar-teachers. 
.........
 
2.2 Collaborative Reflection in Online Environment 
Web-based  technology  is  a  potential  tool  for  supported  collaborative  learning  that  is  being  used  to support  teacher  enriching  their  teaching  performance  (Liaw,  Chen  &  Huang,  2008).  Computer-mediated communication  (CMC)  collaborative  learning  transforms  traditional  in-class  collaborative  teaching strategies  into  a  computer-supported  approach.  The  use  of  computer-mediated  communication  (CMC)  is one way to bring people in different place together who would communicate with each other for the same issue or interest.  CMC  is  defined  by  Romiszowski  and  Mason  (1996)  as  a  process  of  ‘‘communication  between different parties separated in space and/or time, mediated by interconnected computers’’ (438). To support the  process  of  collaborative  reflection,  CMC  can  help  team  members  collaborate  everyday  to  develop  a shared understanding, which they can draw on over time for decision-making. During CMC, all data can easily  be  stored  and  re-used  for  feedback  purposes.  The  online  environment  provides  an  excellent forum for data storage and information sharing. All the data can be scanned at anytime, and the reply and  the  new  understanding  can  be  added  at  the  suitable  time.  Those  data  can  be  the  evidence  of  the teachers’ reflection and the process of the professional development. Production blocking occurs when only one person can speak at one time. It causes difficulty in simultaneous idea generation and often leads to  the  loss  of  productivity  (Diehl  &  Stroebe,  1987).  Research  has  found  that  computer-mediated collaboration can reduce production blocking in face-to-face collaboration ( Gallupe, Bastianutti, & Cooper, 1991; Valacich, Dennis, & Nunamaker, 1992). Computer-mediated communication allows group members to present ideas simultaneously without the interference from peers, multiple ideas can be generated at the same time, while discussion forums have been found to produce more conversations with deeper thinking than  face-to-face  dialogues  (Hawkes  &  Romiszowski,  2001).  Computer-mediated  collaboration  often allows  one  to  view  the  performance  of  other  team  members  and  therefore  causes  the  effect  of  social comparison (Festingerís, 1954). This comparison motivates one to outperform others and can result in the improvement  in  task  performance  (Munkes  &  Diehl,  2003).  Computer-mediated  communication  allows group members to present ideas simultaneously without the interference from peers. Multiple ideas can be generated at the same time. while discussion forums have been found to produce more conversations with deeper thinking than face-to-face dialogues (Hawkes & Romiszowski, 2001). 
........
 
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework .......... 11 
3.1 Social Culture Theory ........ 11 
3.2 Transformative Learning Theory ........... 12 
Chapter Four Research Methodology .... 14 
4.1 Research Questions ............ 14
4.2 Research Method ..... 14 
4.3 Research Setting and Participants .......... 14 
4.3.1 Research Setting ...... 14 
4.3.2 Participants and Data ........ 16 
4.4 Instruments ..... 17 
4.5 Data Collection & Procedure ....... 22 
Chapter Five Results and Discussion ..... 24 
5.1 Content of Collaborative Reflection ...... 24
5.2 Level of Collaborative Reflection .......... 35
5.3 Social Network Analysis (SNA) Results.......... 41 
 
Chapter Five Results and Discussion
 
In  this  chapter,  the  analysis  of  the  resulting  data  will  be  given.  It  includes  four  parts:  the  teachers’ collaborative  reflection  content,  the  teachers’  collaborative  reflection  levels,  the  teachers’  interaction patterns and the comparison will be made between two forums.  In 50 topics, the teachers’ collaborative content and levels were divided into the statements according to  the  Framework  of  Topic  Category  of  Reflection  by  Ho  and  Richards  (1993)  and  Three  Stage Developmental Model of Teacher Reflection (Crotty, 2001). In online discussion, one message or reply may include one or many ideas. The goal of the coding is to identify all of the ideas discussed.  
 
5.1 Content of Collaborative Reflection 
According  to  the  Framework  of  Topic Category  of  Reflection,  the  researchers  count  the number  and percentage  of  English  teachers’  online  collaborative  reflection  categories  on  two  forums.  The  statistics result about the English teachers’ online collaborative reflection topic category abroad is listed in table 3.In  the  table,  instructional  approaches  and  methods  occupies  518  posts,  in  these  posts,  the  teachers make  a  description  about  the  pedagogical  methods,  content  and  students  development  and  management. The  ratio  is  30%,  which  is  the  highest,  and  it  reveals  that  teachers  care  more  about  their  daily  teaching events. The  following  is  evaluation  of  teaching,  which  takes  462  posts,  and  it  displays  that  the  teachers make  an  evaluation  for  events  actively.  Theories  of  teaching  are  the  next,  it  is  243  posts,  which  takes  up 14%,  and  it  demonstrates  that  in  the  teaching  practice,  a  part  of  teachers  have  the  awareness  of  using theories. Instructional technology take 133 posts (8%), it indicates that a part of teachers are aware of the effect of technologies for teaching.   
.........
 
Conclusions 
 
The  present  study  aims  at  exploring  the  situation  of  teachers’  online  collaborative  reflection.  This research  is  conducted  on  the  basis  of  three  aspects:  the  teacher’s  collaborative  reflection  content;  the teachers’  collaborative  reflection  level;  the  teachers’  interaction  features.  And  the  comparison  was  made from three aspects between two forums. Firstly,  on  two  forums,  the  student  is  the  core  of  the  teachers’  topic.  And  the  teachers  pay  more attention  to  the  teaching  skills  and  strategies.  They  exchange  the  ideas  and  share  their  experience  for  the problems in the practice.  And  there  are  differences  about  the  content  on  the  two  forums.  On  the  forum  at  home,  the  teachers prefer  to  talk  about  the  curriculum  reform;  hot  issues;  educational  news  and  policies,  and  they  attach  the importance  to  the  examination.  On  the  forum  abroad,  the  teachers  pay  more  attention  to  the  instructional technology. They refer to the usage of technical device in the classroom, the usage of corpora to assist the students’ learning and the online class. Secondly,  the  teachers’  online  collaborative  reflection  level  is  mostly  at  the  first  reflective  stage,  B1 takes a big part, most part of the teachers just describe the artifact and evidence. On two forums, there are some differences about the reflective  level. On forum at home, the second most  frequent  reflective  level  is  at  the  intermediate  stage,  and  M1  takes  the  biggest  part  at  this  stage,  the teachers always give their new understandings about an issue. While on the forum abroad, the second most frequent part is at the expert stage, E3 is the biggest part at this stage, the expert assist and mentor teachers about the practice. 
.........
References (omitted) 

提供海量毕业论文,论文格式,论文格式范文,留学生论文,商务报告相关资料检索服务。
本论文由代写论文网整理提供 http://www.dxlwwang.com/
需要专业的学术论文资料,请联系我们客服
本文地址:http://www.dxlwwang.com/yingyu/6014.html
论文关键字:英语硕士论文 合作反思内容 合作反思水平 社会网络分析