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英语硕士论文:初中英语学业成就测试对教和学的反拨作用

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Chapter 1 Introduction

 
1.1 Research Background
Language testing is an important part of English teaching and learning,and testingis closely related to teaching and learning.Qi Luxia (2011) hold that the influence oflanguage testing on teaching and learning is called the washback, which is divided intopositive effect and negative effect. Yang huizhong (2015) regard that washback is animportant concept in applied linguistics. It refers to the impact of the development andimplementation of language testing on teachers and learners. Any test has a certaineffect on teachers and students, as well as teaching and learning.In the past 20 years, the research of washback has got a rapid development athome and abroad. Among them, the domestic researches mainly aim at the large scaleEnglish test, such as CET4, CET6, TEM4, TEM8, the college entrance examinationand the College English proficiency test. But the research of achievement test isrelatively little,which is the way to understand the process of student learning and tocheck the quality of teaching. Achievement test is designed to help teachers teach moreeffectively and students learn much better. Achievement test can’t get enough attentionin foreign language teaching,and quite a few teachers recognize its importance.Theyare not clear that achievement test can play a critical role in promoting teaching andlearning.With the consideration of the shortage of research on washback of achievementtest, as well as the more and more profound effects of the test scores on teaching andlearning, it is necessary to reflect the problems of achievement test in junior highschool and propose some recommendations for improvement.
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1.2 Research Purpose
This study mainly explores the washback of achievementtest on junior Englishteaching and learning with the help of the theories proposed by Alderson & Wall andHughes. On the one hand, it aims to find washback effect, on the other hand, it aims toput forward some valuable suggestions for reform of achievement test and promotejunior English teaching and learning.In this study, a research frameworkwill be constructed bycollecting and analyzingthe present reference materials. It investigates the washback of achievement test onjunior English teaching and learning with both qualitative and quantitative researchmethods. Questionnaire, interview, classroom observation and analysis of test paperare as research instruments. The subjects of the study are 151students and 11 teacherswho are from Feng Ming Mountain Middle school. Analysis of test paper is to knowthecurrent situation of achievement test. The purpose of teachers questionnaire isto findout English teachers’ attitudes towards achievement test and its washback on Englishteaching.The collected data of teachers questionnaires are classified and saved inMicrosoft Excel File, and then they are entered SPSS to do factor analysis. Thepurpose of students questionnaires is to investigatestudents’ attitudes towardsachievement test and the impact ofachievement test onEnglish learning from theaspects of time invested in learning English, learning materials, learning content and soon. The collected data of students questionnaires are classified and saved in MicrosoftExcel File. As a supplementary tool to the questionnaire,interview is given to themwho have responded to the questionnaire and have agreed to participate in theinterview. Interview aims to get a better understanding washback effectsofachievement test on teaching and learning. And classroom observation is carried out toobserve the actual teaching and learning activities.
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Chapter 2 Literature Review
 
In this chapter, it is a brief review of previous researches about empirical studiesonwashback at home and abroad. Those scholars adopted different ways to do theresearches. Some employed a data collection method to explore a research, and othersadopted two or three methods of data collection to study it.
 
2.1 Empirical Studies on Washback of a Data Collection Method
In recent years, there had been many empiricalstudies onwashback at home andabroad. The following researchers used a data collection method to study the washbackeffect. And they took different people as their research subjects.There were some empiricalstudies about washback, which took students as the researchsubjects. Xie, Qin & Andrews (2013) adopted questionnaire to investigate whether testdesign influencedtest preparation. It had showed that attitudes of test takers, theirownself-confidence, their skills had an impact on students’ preparation for examination.Green (2006) explored the washback effect of IELTS on learning. It found that narrowpreparation strategies andlearner expectations were the factors to affectlearning.Pan,Yi-Ching (2014) aimed to compare with learner behaviors before and after theintroduction of exit tests to test and verify some of Alderson & Wall’s hypotheses. Thisstudy highlighted the differential effects on exit requirements for different groups oflearners depending on their studying years, proficiency level, and opinion of thetest.Hirai&Koizumi (2009) put forward the project of oral assessment in classroom,hoping to adopt to repeating story to improve the ability of spoken English. It wasproved that the method of story repetition had a positive effect on learning and the oraltest.
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2.2 Empirical Studies on Washback of Two Methods of Data Collection
Different researchers combinedwith different two methods of data collection toexplore washback. Some researchers explored washback by adopting learning diaryand interview. Some researchers combined with classroom observation and interviewto study washback. Some researchers adopted questionnaire and interview as researchinstruments to explore washback.They adopted learning diary and interview as research instruments, and they tookstudents as research subjects. Zhan, Ying&Wan, Zhihong(2014) adopted learning dairyand interview as research instruments to study how the reform of CET 4 affect studentsextracurricularlearning. The finding indicated that washback of extracurricular learningis dynamic, which depended on individual learners. Gu Xiangdong, ZhangZhengchuan&Liu Xiaohua(2014) exploredthe washback effect of reform of CET onextracurricularEnglish learning. The study concluded that the reform of CET, to acertain extent, generated positive effect onextracurricular English learning. Thedistribution of test scores, design of item types and the difficulty of skill developmentwere main factors to affect English learning. In addition, the students’ English level,examination experience,the difficulty of testand the quality of professors also cancausedifferent effects.Zhan, Ying& Andrews(2014) discussed the washback of CET4on extracurricular learning. The study showed that under the influence of the test,students were more likely to change what they learned rather than the way oflearning.And the washback of CET4 on extracurricular learningwas closely related tothe students’ perception of the test.There were some studies adopted classroom observation and interview to researchwashback. Hung(2012) took teachers as research subjects to explore the positive andnegative washback effects of e-portfolio assessments on learning. It showed thate-portfolio assessments generated positive washback effects on learning, includingbuilding a community of practice, facilitating peer learning, enhancing learning ofcontent knowledge, promoting professional development, and cultivating criticalthinking. However, e-portfolio assessments also brought some negative washbackeffects, such as learning anxiety deriving from larger audiences, and resistance totechnology.Saif (2006) explored the possibility of creating positive washback byfocusing on factors in the background of the test development process. It suggested apositive relationship between the test and the immediate teaching and learningoutcomes. However, there was no evidence linking the test to the policy or educationalchanges at an institutional level.
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Chapter 3Theoretical Foundations ..........10
3.1Definition of Washback...........10
3.2Classification of Washback........10
3.2.1 Positive Washback............10
3.2.2 Negative Washback ..........10
3.3 Alderson & Wall’s Washback Hypotheses ....11
3.4 Hughes’“ppp”Basic Model of Washback......12
3.5 Summary..............13
Chapter 4 Research Design.....14
4.1 Research Questions ........14
4.2 Data Collection ....14
4.2.1 Research Subjects.............14
4.2.2 Research Instruments .......14
4.3 Data Analysis .......16
Chapter 5 Results and Discussion.............19
5.1 Current Situation of Achievement Test .........20
5.1.1 The Source of Test Papers ...........20
5.1.2 The Structure of Test Papers........20
5.2 Attitudes of Teachers and Students towards Achievement Test ..............22
5.3 Washback of Achievement Test on Teaching and Learning .........25
5.4 Discussion.............34
 
Chapter 5 Results and Discussion
 
5.1 Current Situation of Achievement Test
In order to understand the process of teaching and situation of learning, schoolwill organize monthly tests each month. When asked how these test papers made out,the three interviewed teachers have the same answers to the question, one ofinterviewed teachers said: “Achievement test paper was made out by teachersthemselves. And we try our best to follow the model of the senior high school entranceexamination to make out test paper. We often piece it together from existing test papers,information from network and many kinds of extracurricular exercises.”From Table 5-1, the structure of test paper for junior one includes two parts. Thefirst part is objective questionsincluding listening, selecting the different pronunciationof underlined part, multiple choice, cloze, reading comprehension, and oral application.The other part is the subjective questions including fill in the blanks with the correctwords,sentence pattern transformation, making up sentence by given words, sentencecompletion,dialogue completion and writing.From Table 5-2, the structure of test papersfor junior two and three includes twoparts. The first part is objective questionsincluding listening, multiple choice, cloze,reading comprehension and oral application. The other part is the subjective questionsincluding task-based reading, sentence completion, essay filling and writing. It isconsistent with the model of the senior high school entrance examination.According to the two tables above, the structure of test paper for junior one ismore varied. The structure of test papers for junior two and three is similar to thesenior high school entrance examination, and the score distribution of each part isidentical. Percentage of scores of achievement test is different in the three grades. Asfar as the test paper of junior one is concerned, the scores of multiple-choice questionsaccount for 63%, and the scores of non-choice questions account for 37%. As far as thetest paper of junior two and three is concerned, the scores of multiple-choice questionsaccount for 67%, and the scores of non-choice questions account for 33%.
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Conclusion
 
The chapter concludes the whole thesis through presenting the major findings,providing the implications of achievement test in junior English teaching and learning,pointing out the limitation of the study as well as putting forward recommendations forfurther studying the washback of achievement test on junior middle school Englishteaching and learning.Through the analysis of the test paper from junior two, questionnaires, interviews andclassroom observations, the study tries to answer these questions: (1) What is thecurrent situation of achievement test of junior middle school English? (2) What are theattitudes of teachers and students towards achievement test of junior middle schoolEnglish? (3) What kind of washback does achievement test generate washback onEnglish teachingandlearning? What aspects dothe washback effects reflect on? Thefindings of these research questions are draw below.The testpapers are made out by teachers themselves,which accord with thesenior high school entrance examination and come from existing testpapers,information from network and previous exercises. And the question types arevery limited, except the test paper from junior one. Italso indicates that with the gradebecoming higher, teachers want students to better adapt to the modelof the senior highschool entrance examination. For a long time, due to the test of misunderstanding,teachers rarely think about how to make out a better test paper to measure the ability ofstudents. The test does not play a role in diagnosing and regulating, and it can lead toincorrect feedback. So teachers can not correctly understand the situation of studentsgasping knowledge.
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References (abbreviated)

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