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成就动机理论在小学英语听力教学中的应用

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本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语论文的写作,主要用于参加国际学术研讨会,促进中外学术文化交流;在国际学术刊物上发表,在国际上共享科研成果,英语论文也是达到学术交流的目的;另外英语论文还包括英语相关专业人员必要地用英语撰写学术报告或毕业论文等等。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语硕士论文,供大家参考。

 
Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1 Research Background
The development of language information and Globalization has gradually makeEnglish become the most widely used language, and it becomes an important tool forChina’s opening-up and international communication. To learn and master a foreignlanguage is the basic requirement for citizens in twenty-first century. English courseshave important significance for the future development of the adolescents in the stageof compulsory education.The main task of English curriculum for nine-year compulsory education isto stimulate and cultivate student’s interest and their confidence in learningthe language, enable students to master basic English language knowledgeand skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing so that they formsufficient competence in using the language. On the basis of all of theabove, we lay a good basis for their life-long learning. (Wang Qiang 2006:44)According to the students’ physiological and psychological characteristics andthe development needs, English courses in primary school aims to stimulate students’interest in English learning and cultivate their positive attitude towards learningEnglish, so that they can establish confidence in learning English; to cultivate acertain sense of language, a good pronunciation and intonation, so that they can forma preliminary simple ability to daily communication with English and lay thefoundation for further study. The English Curriculum Standard for CompulsoryEducation (2011) also puts forward that the goal of fundamental English courses arenot only to improve students’ language skills, but also develop their positive attitudestowards language learning. Motivation is one of the most important factors instudents’ emotional attitudes. The English Curriculum Standard for CompulsoryEducation (2011) requires English courses in primary should be offered from gradethree. In order to ensure the quality of teaching and teaching effectiveness, Englishcourses in primary schools should combine short class time with long class time,frequent exposure to English. Grade three and four are dominated by short class hour;Grade five and six are combined with long and short class hours. The overallcompetence is based on the overall development of students’ language skills, language knowledge, emotional attitudes, learning strategies and cultural awareness. Languageknowledge and language skills are the basis for the comprehensive use of languageskills, cultural awareness is the use of appropriate language assurance. Learningstrategies are the guarantee to improve learning efficiency and develop self-learningability. Emotional attitudes are important factors that affect students’ learning anddevelopment in English learning, especially students’ motivation. So the we picks outthe following objectives about motivation that should be achieved in level 1 to 9 ofthis course.
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1.2 Purpose of this Research
According to the researches have found, scholars have always paid greatattention to motivation in college English and the research about English motivationin primary school is always neglected. Therefore, according to the following fourresearch questions, the author explore the purposes of the thesis.(1) What are the main reasons of demotivation for the primary students in that the teachers can come up with the suitable solutions for those that has lessinterests in learning English class.(2) What are the differencesofAchievement Motivation in terms of gender andgrade in primary English class?By this research question, there are clear differencesamong students of different grades and genders.(3) What kind of measures can be applied to stimulate primary students’motivation more effectively in listening? Several strategies for increasingachievement motivation were summarized in this paper, such as competition andcooperation strategies, strict scoring strategies, protecting motivation strategy and soon.By studying the research topic, it could realize the following purposes:Firstly, it will find about the reasons of demotivation, involving students andteachers’ attitudes. It can guide teachers to think deeply of the problems hiddenbehind the demotivated students and to readjust their teaching methods to the practicalEnglish teaching.
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Chapter Two Literatur e Review
 
2.1An Introduction to Motivation
Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior. According toMaehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as fewother psychological concepts are” (Maehr and Meyer 1997:44).It has often been said by people involved in language teaching that a studentwho really wants to learn will succeed whatever the circumstances are under which hestudies. It is certainly true that students do learn in unfavorable conditions, and it isalso true that students often succeed in using methods that experts have consideredunsatisfactory. All teachers can think of situations in which certain ‘motivated’students do significantly better than their peers, and it seems reasonable to suggestthat the motivation of the student is perhaps the single most important thing that hebrings to the classroom(Jeremy Harmer 1983:3).For students, learning is more than a personal thing but for some reasons, it is,for example, to improve students reputation and graduation rate that parents and theirteachers want. They try their best to persuade learners to learn. Schools have come upwith four main ways to improve teaching quality. First, schools give frequent exams.Second, they update course content. Third, schools raise students’ interest in what isbeing taught. Last, schoolsimpose strict regulations on daily teaching. Asthe authorhas found, giving exams and imposing strict regulations are negative while raisingstudents’ interest and updating course content are positive because the former areexternal factors which push them to learn, while the later comes down to theimportant internal aspects of learning with the learner. But ignoring the positive facts,giving frequent exams and raising interest are the most frequently used ways. What’smore, now most schools are using this method to stimulate students to learn. However,it has a bad effect that students usually learn by rote to cope with exams. They can’ttruly understand what they have learned. The other good method is to stimulate theirinterest and everybody knows that interest is the best teacher for learning. If they haveinterest in studying, they won’t need anyone to force them to learn and they can studywell, but it’s difficult to lead everybody interested in the same subject and the interestdevelopment not only depends on themselves but alsoon the teachers’ teaching skillsand methods. As for updating course content and enhancing strict regulations, the author doesn’t think they are good ways. What’s more, teachers are adults and theydon’t want to be controlled. To sum it up, if they want to raise students’ initiative, theywill change the education system and make students all interested in study which isthe most useful way to achieve it.
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2.2 Theoretical Basis
The reinforcement theory of learning motivation is put forward by behavioristlearning theorists(Skinner 1953). They not only use reinforcement to explain theoccurrence of learning, but also use it to explain the motivation. In fact, in some S-R(Skinner 1953) psychologists view, it is unnecessary to distinguish learning withmotivation. In their view, a person’s tendency to act in a certain way depends on thereinforcement of the previous learning behavior, which is reinforced by theestablishment of a strong relationship, and it can be strengthened and consolidated.According to this view, any behavior of learning aims to obtain a reward.Therefore, to take a variety of external means, such as praise and reward, gradingcompetition can stimulate the students’ learning motivation, causing theircorresponding learning behavior.The research shows that teachers’ criticism and praise will affect students’achievements. For example, if teachers praise students, their grades will rise. In fact,the reinforcement effect of teacher’s praise is restricted by many factors. For example,the teacher always said to the students, “do it well! I know you are going to do it wellif you work hard”. Of course, the theory of reinforcement motivation is the a theoryfor behaviorism. Because behaviorism overemphasizes the external force of behaviorand ignores or even denies the consciousness and initiative of human’s learningbehavior, so the theory of learning motivation has great limitations.
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Chapter Three Methodology ............... 31
3.1 Research Questions..... 31
3.2 Research Subjects ....... 31
3.3 Research Instruments ................ 36
3.4 Procedure ...... 38
3.4.1 Preparation ........ 38
3.4.2 Procedure Process ........... 38
Chapter Four Data Analysis and Discussion..... 42
4.1 Data Analysis of the Interview................ 42
4.2 Data Analysis of theQuestionnaire.......... 48
4.3. Data Analysis of the pre-test .... 51
4.4 Data Analysis of the Post-test ................. 53
Chapter Five Conclusion....... 55
5.1 Major findings............. 55
5.2 Pedagogic Implications............. 57
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Study ............. 57
 
Chapter Four DataAnalysis and Discussion
 
4.1 DataAnalysis of the Interview
The author has collected various data and now begins to solve the first researchquestion: what are the main reasons of demotivation in primary school. Based on theinterviews written after the class, the author will discuss the results. And in theresearch process, the author found that the students’ interest and the types ofmotivation are the main factors that relate to the reasons of demotivation. Therefore,this thesis mainly studies four factors.The second question of the interviewsare about the students and teachers viewsabout the reasons of demotivation in English listening class. The second question ofteachers: what are the reasons that cause students’ demotivation in English listeningclass? The answers are boring, lack of interest, avoiding punishment, less reward andlow achievement.Then, the results of the study are given by the following diagram:From the table we can see, the students’ views about the demotivation whichcommonly occur in English class: feel bored about the listening, lack of learninginterest, avoid punishment from teachers, less reward from teachers and peers, anddue to lower achievement. Among them, 72.7% of students reflect the students feellack of interest in English listening class. Both teachers and students think they arebored with English listening class with 30.3% and 24.2%. The number of teachers isabout two times larger than students’ views with the reasons of less reward in Englishlistening class. It is about 67.4% of teachers view that students are less motivated dueto the frequency of reward from teachers and other classmates. However, we see theright side of the table, the expect situations which the students and the teachers thinkthat here are the same places and also some differences. Firstly, the same place is thatboth teachers and most of students think that students are less motivated becauselacking of interest and they feel the English listening material is so boring or moredifficult. Maybe the two parts of reasons are most commonly met in English classes.Then teachers and students think that they have demotivation owns to lowerachievement. That is to say, students tend to avoid failure but do not strive for success.Secondly, the different places are that asking questions, 26.3% of students reflect ofteachers rarely praise and reward them, but 67.4% of teachers think that they havetake some actions in improving students’ interest and motivation by praise themduring the class and give them positive feedback in the class and even in othersituations. From it we can see, maybe most of students could not have interests inEnglish listening class, so they have no idea of the answer, at the same time, we wishthe problem could be caused teachers’ attention. Besides, when teachers haveeffective feedback and evaluations for students, they may change the attitude towardclass learning.
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Conclusion
 
With the development of economy, the achievement motivation begins to attractmore and more researchers attention. This thesis is an empirical study about thesituation of students’ achievement motivation in primary school. And it refers to threeresearch questions: 1. What are the main reasons of demotivation for the primarystudents in English listening class? 2. What are the differencesofAchievementMotivation in terms of gender and grade in primary English class?3. What kind ofmeasures can be applied to stimulate primary students’ motivation more effectively inlistening? The author adopts the quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis to studythe phenomenon. This chapter will introduce the major findings, pedagogicimplications , limitations and suggestions for further research.
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References (abbreviated)

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