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词义推断策略在大学英语阅读教学中的运用实证研究

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本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语由古代从丹麦等斯堪的纳维亚半岛以及德国、荷兰及周边移民至不列颠群岛的盎格鲁、撒克逊以及朱特部落的白人所说的语言演变而来,并通过英国的殖民活动传播到了世界各地。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语硕士论文,供大家参考。

 
Introduction
 
There is no doubt that vocabulary proficiency has a crucial role in alanguage, especially in reading part, while lexical inferencing is acommonly used method to deal with the new word in readingcomprehension, which also has close relationship with accidental lexicalacquisition. Ellis’ previous research suggests that almost all languagelearners tend to understand the new word that come across in somespecific context or read in the passage(1994). At the same time, lexicalinferencing is regarded as one of the most effective reading strategies.Even some researchers think that using lexical inferencing could makethe reading process more smoothly than looking up the dictionaries,because it won’t interrupt the reading activity. Nation states that under thecondition of specific context, language learners using different lexicalinferencing strategies to read materials could not only have a goodcommand of new words and enrich their own vocabulary knowledge,butalso improve the reading skills, which makes reading more relaxing andhappier. Since 1970s, lexical inferencing strategy has been a hot topic insecond language acquisition. Later, after conducting lots of researchabout it from various perspective, linguists prove that language learnerscan benefit a lot from lexical inferencing to gain the correct meaning of target new words. Even today, lexical inferencing strategy still attractstremendous interest and constant debate among researchers and L2teachers.It is universally acknowledged that vocabulary has a great importantrole in the second language acquisition, so Chinese students areencouraged to pay enough attention on words and expressions, evencollege students are used to reciting the word lists. They spend a lot oftime on it with great pressure, however, the results are still notsatisfactory for them. On the one hand, reciting new words is atime-consuming work which lead them to have few time to do othersignificant work. Secondly, the time of memorization for human’s brain istoo short, so it’s easy for students to forget them. What’s worst, althoughsome students get the meaning of these words, they may not know how touse them properly and freely, so vocabulary is still a difficult part forlearners, especially in the reading process.
In order to deal with the above problems, some researchers andschool teachers also find some ways. For example, looking up thedictionary or textbooks, asking help from teachers, inferring wordmeanings or ignoring the new words and continuing to read. It isobviously that students could benefit a lot from the first two methods, tosome extent, they can interrupt the process of reading and influence thereading comprehension. While ignoring the new words could save a lot oftime, but it hardly have effects on reading comprehension. No doubt,when come across unfamiliar words, inferring the meaning according tothe context, background knowledge or common sense is an effective way.It won’t have side effect on reading speed and reading comprehension.What’s more, it could also develop the learner’s ability ofself-study,especially for higher education students. The cognitive abilityof them are more mature than high school students, so it is also a practicalway for university students, and based on the previous researches, lexicalinferencing is regarded as one of the most-used and most effectivestrategy used in vocabulary acquisition and reading. (Schmitt&McCarthy,2002).Since 1970s, there are a large number of researchers to study thistopic. Most of the researches related to lexical inferencing are about theresults of inferencing. For example, Frase,Huckin and Coady(1999)explore the correlation between lexical inferencing and vocabularyacquisition. Kern(1984) investigates the correlation between lexicalinferencing and reading comprehension. All of these studies provideempirical basis for the following study. What’s more, the study about theprocess and differences between different levels are in shortage whichmakes the present study available.
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Chapter One Literature Review
 
1.1 Studies on Reading Strategies
Reading strategies are critical components of learning strategies andvital factors of effective reading. It has been a hot issue in the field of thestudy about Second Language Acquisition. The study of readingstrategies abroad could be traced back to the late 1970s, while theexplosion of the relevant studies in china was about a decade later. Buteven today, there is still lack of a standard definition of reading strategiesin academics.Researchers described the characteristics of reading strategies fromthe different aspects. And most of the definitions are revealed by foreignscholars.Among them, the universal ones are as follows:Block(1986) considers that reading strategies are how readers finishreading tasks, what textual clues they apply to get meaning and what theydo when meeting obstacles. Cohen(1990) thinks that reading strategiesare mental processes readers consciously choose to be used to finishreading tasks. Wallace(1992) regards reading strategies as ways ofreading which readers employ flexibly and tentatively and vary accordingto the different textual types and reading purposes. Johnson(1998) claimsthat reading strategies are behaviors readers choose to apply to tackleproblems occurring in reading process. It not only includes somereading skills, such as prediction, inference of the new words meaning ,reasoning the contents of the article, scanning and skimming and it alsoincludes some measures that readers take to achieve the expected readingpurpose . According to Chinese scholars Li Jiongying and QinZhijuan(2005), reading strategies are actions, skills and behaviors thatreaders take to solve the reading problems and have effective reading.They are implicit rules systems and also explicit operating procedures.From several kinds of definitions mentioned above, we can findthat reading strategies share some characteristics. First, reading strategiesare reader-centered, and readers use some methods or skills consciouslyto solve the reading problems. Second, reading strategies include both theconcrete actions of readers and cognitive activities. Finally, the use ofreading strategies is influenced by the language knowledge, reading skills,intelligence and emotion of the readers.
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1.2 Studies on Lexical Inferencing Strategies
Lexical inferencing has been one important issue in vocaubularyacquisition and the research of reading comprehension. In the earlyresearch of lexical inferencing, academia used the term of “guessing wordmeanings from context” . Carton first put forward the term of “inferencing”(1971). He stated that inferencing was a cognitive strategy.It referred that readers used familiar attributes and context to identify theunknown information while reading. Haastrup first proposed lexicalinferencing(1991). And he defined the term from cognitive psychology.Lexical inferencing “involves making informed guesses as to the meaningof a word in light of all available linguistic cues in combinations with thelearner’s general knowledge of the world, her awareness of context andher relevant linguistic knowledge’ (Haastrup, 1991: 40). The definitionwere widely accepted by the researchers at home and abroad. Althoughboth two researchers treated lexical inferencing as a cognitivestrategy( because they stressed the development readers’ inferringabilities as important parts of language processing knowledge), Oxfordtook it as one of compensation strategies( because he paid more attentionon the function of lexical strategies in the language communication). Infact, it really doesn’t matter whether lexical strategies belong tocompensation strategies or cognitive strategy. The cues used in lexicalinferencing do matter. For example, Carton divided the cues in theinferring into context, intra-lingual cues and inter-lingual cues. In thefollowing part, the author will talk about it in detail.
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Chapter Three Methodology.............. 45
3.1 Research Design.... 45
3.1.1 Research Questions.......... 45
3.1.2 Research Participants....... 46
3.1.3 Research Instruments....... 47
3.2 Research procedures.....53
3.2.1 Data Collection....55
3.2.2 DataAnalysis.......58
Chapter Four Results and Discussion............ 63
4.1Using FrequencyofLexical Inferencing Strategiesamong Non-English Major Students...............63
4.2Differences of UsingLexical Inferencing Strategiesamong DifferentLevel Participants.........69
4.3 Correlation between the Useof Lexical Inferencing Strategies....75
 
Chapter Four Results and Discussion
 
According to the collection of the data from the questionnaires,reading tests and interview, the aim of this chapter is to show the majorfindings and results of the study questions. Then the results are discussedin detail. At first, the descriptive analysis of lexical inferencing strategiesadopted and their frequency are presented. Then the differences of lexicalinferencing strategies used by different level subjects are explored.At last,the comparing studies of whether teaching different lexical inferencingstrategies could improve vocabulary inferencing ability are illustrated.
 
4.1 Using Frequency of Lexical Inferencing Strategies amongNon-English Major Students
In this study, the questionnaire was designed on the basis of a5-point Liken scale (from A to E). A refers to subjects never or almostnever using this strategy, while E means the subjects always or almostalways using this strategy. The more the number of A is, the lessfrequently this strategy is used. On the contrary, the more the number ofE is, the more frequently this strategy is used. The frequency of A to E isincreasing. In this part, descriptive statistics such as mean and SD inSPSS 21.0 are used to explore which strategies are used most and lestfrequently, which is based on the total number of subjects 110. In orderto look at the questionnaire results clearly and comfortably, when thesubjects choose A and B, these answers belong to frequency M andpercent M to measure. While the subjects choose C,D and E, all of theseanswers belong to frequency N and percent N to measure. In this case, thehigher the M is , the less frequently the strategy is adopted. The higherthe N is, the more frequently the strategy is used.
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Conclusions
 
In this thesis, the empirical study is conducted to explore the use oflexical inferencing strategies and the using differences between twodifferent level students. Finally, it uses the methods of IndependentSamples Test and Paired Samples Test to investigate the correlationbetween teaching inferencing strategies and students’ vocabularyinferencing ability. In this part, the main results related to the threeresearch questions are listed. Secondly, it will give teachers somepedagogical implications . At last, it presents the limitations of thisempirical research and gives some advice for further study.
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References (abbreviated)

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