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词汇教学法在农村初中英语写作教学中的应用

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本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语论文的写作,主要用于参加国际学术研讨会,促进中外学术文化交流;在国际学术刊物上发表,在国际上共享科研成果,英语论文也是达到学术交流的目的;另外英语论文还包括英语相关专业人员必要地用英语撰写学术报告或毕业论文等等。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语硕士论文,供大家参考。

 
Chapter One Introduction
 
There is no doubt that grammar and vocabulary play important roles in English teaching.However, teachers often teach them separately. Students have to repeat words and grammarpoints in order to memorize them. Admittedly, they can memorize some words and grammarpoints to some extent in this way, but they can not use them correctly or properly. As we allknow, writing skill is one of the most important skills in English learning. Writing skill stoodfor learners’ comprehensive skills. However, most teachers don’t attach importance to writing.They only give students some samples and require students to recite them. Besides, studentstranslate Chinese into English in order to write a composition. As a result, it happensfrequently that students can not make idiomatic sentences.From the 1970s, some foreign linguists started to have a deep thought about vocabularyand grammar. They thought that vocabulary and grammar shouldn’t be learned separately. Onthe contrary, vocabulary and grammar should be combined. There were lots of terminologies,such as “prefabricated chunks”, “formulas”, “lexicalized sentence stems”, “lexical chunks”and “lexical phrases”. Although they used different terminologies, they all thought thatvocabulary and grammar were relevant. Michael Lewis put forward lexical approach firstly,which made the approach of lexical phrases become a kind of teaching method. Recently,lexical approach is given more attention. The reason why native speakers can communicatewith each other fluently and effectively is that they have mastered lexical phrases.
 
1.1 Background of the study
New English Curriculum for Chinese Primary Schools and Junior/Senior Middle Schoolsdrafted in 2011, points out that students in Grade 9 must achieve Level 5 when they graduatefrom middle schools. Definitely speaking, Level 5 in writing includes: 1. Being able to collectand make preparations for writing materials according to standers of writing; 2. Being able todraft common passages or e-mails and modify them with the help of teachers; 3. Being able touse common conjunctions to indicate the relation of sequence and logic; 4. Being able todescribe characters or events simply; 5. Being able to write simple passages or instructions.Standards of English Composition for High School Entrance Examination: Thecomposition accounts for fifteen scores. Students should use proper tense, voice, sentencestructures and words to deliver information that are demanded completely and correctly inEnglish composition. There are four levels:Level 1: Being able to conform to demands of the title with complete contents, distinctstructures and expressions and without grammar errors (13 to 15 scores);Level 2: Being able to conform to demands of the title with complete contents, distinctstructures and expressions and with fewer grammar errors generally (9 to 12 scores);Level 3: Parts of contents conform to demands of the title with incomplete contents,indistinct structures and expressions and more grammar errors (4 to 8 scores);Level 4: Being not able to conform to demands of the title with indistinct expressions orcopying or making up some words (0 to 3 scores).
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1.2 Significance of the study
In recent years, studies on lexical approach have been increasing. Many researchersconcentrate on the application of lexical approach in English teaching in colleges and highschools. However, studies on the application of lexical approach to English writing teachingin middle schools, especially in rural middle schools are fewer. This research concentrated onthe application of lexical approach based on psychological linguistics and second languageacquisition to English writing teaching in rural middle schools.On the theoretical aspects: (1) Considering psychological linguistics and secondlanguage acquisition, lexical approach is helpful in broadening our horizons. The research onlexical approach can make us have a deeper thought on English language, enrich ourknowledge and guide our teaching. (2) Combined with English writing, the research canexplain or prove why lexical approach is available.On the practical aspects: (1) For teachers: Instead of asking students to repeat and recitesample passages or translate Chinese into English, teachers can use lexical approach to guide their English teaching and provide an effective way for students to practice their Englishwriting. (2) For students: Changing the traditional way to write compositions, students canwrite natural sentences, which will not only be beneficial to improve their basic languageskills but also be helpful to motivate them to learn English. There is no doubt that the researchwill provide students in rural middle schools with an effective way to learn English and tocatch up with students in urban areas. How to improve students’ writing is an importantquestion which should be explored.
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
In this chapter, the author mainly introduces relevant studies on lexical phrases abroadand at home, relevant studies on lexical approach in English teaching and previous studies onlexical approach to English writing teaching in rural middle schools.
 
2.1 Relevant studies on lexical phrases abroad and at home
For lexical approach, lexical phrases play an important role in English teaching. If wewant to apply lexical approach, we must master lexical phrases. There are many studies aboutlexical phrases. Researchers mainly study lexical phrases from their definitions,classifications and criteria.Lexical phrases are also called “prefabricated chunks”. It is used firstly in psychologicalconcept -- chunking (Zhou Zhengzhong, 2014). Different scholars have differentterminologies on them at different periods. The lexical phrase is put forward in LexicalPhrases and Language Teaching written by James R. Nattinger and Jeanette S. Decarrico(2000). Recently, lexical phrases or prefabricated chunks have been studied by more and moreresearchers from different perspectives.Foreign scholars defined lexical phrases from the following perspectives:Becker (1975) suggested that phrases such as let alone, as well as, and so much forshould be paid more attention. He stated prefabricated chunks were formulaic frames withanalytic slots. Learners could express his or her views through prefabricated chunks instead ofword by word. Pawley & Syder (1983) used the “lexicalized sentence stems” to define lexicalphrases. They believed that the “lexicalized sentence stems” were the basis to master Englishfor learners. Meanwhile, they also thought that if learners wanted to master a language, it wasimpossible to only grasp the Transformational-Generative Grammar. Therefore, theyconcluded that the level of proficiency depended on learners’ abilities to grasp lexical chunks.Nattinger & DeCarrico (2000) focused on the lexico-grammatical unit. They thought thatlexical chunks were chunks with different lengths, such as on the other hand, as it were andthe higher X, the higher Y. These lexical chunks could be analyzed by regular rules ofgrammar (Nattinger & DeCarrico, 2000). The definition put forward by Wray (1999) isaccepted widely by most researchers. The lexical chunk is: a sequence, continuous ordiscontinuous, of words or other meaning elements, which is or appears to be prefabricated:that is, stored and retrieved whole from memory at the time of use, rather than being subjectto generation or analysis by the language grammar (2002: 9).
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2.2 Previous studies on lexical approach in English teaching
Michael Lewis firstly published The Lexical Approach: The State of ELT and the WayForward (1993), and then published A Lexical Approach (1994), which made the approach ofthe lexical phrase become a new language teaching approach (Zhou Zhengzhong, 2014). Inthe 1970s, Dave Willis (1990) explored lexical approach firstly. Lewis (1997) put forwardlexical approach which centered on the vocabulary. He thought that the key and difficultpoints were collocations, fixed expressions, sentence structures and indirect speeches. Lexicalphrases were the center of the language teaching. James R. Nattinger and Jeanette S.DeCarrico (2000) explored the application for language teaching. They explained the way toteach spoken and written discourses in Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching.There are more and more studies on English teaching in China. Lexical approach inEnglish teaching are not influential as a kind of language teaching approach. However, it hasbeen given much attention both in theoretical and practical parts. Generally speaking, studies on lexical approach in English teaching at home concerns two aspects: the theoretical aspectand the empirical aspect.On the aspect of theoretical research: Through analyzing lexical phrases, Yang Yuchen(1999) advocated that English teachers should teach English vocabulary by means of lexicalapproach. The research analyzed lexical phrases, including its definition and classification andexplained that lexical approach had potential advantages in listening, speaking, reading andwriting. What’s more, they also pointed out its disadvantages in specific steps of theapplication of lexical approach (Wujing & Wang Ruidong, 2002). Pu Jianzhong (2003)pointed out that the reason why learners had trouble in mastering vocabulary was that theydidn’t master colligations, collocations and lexical phrases completely. As the minimum unitof vocabulary teaching, Pu thought that lexical approach had a great advantage in Englishteaching in middle schools. The application of lexical approach was helpful to the reform anddevelopment of English teaching in middle schools (Li Taizhi, 2004). Zhou Yishu (2007)managed to cultivate students’ consciousness of lexical chunks in practical English teaching.Based on Lewis (1993) -- the Lexical Approach, from the perspective of stressing lexicalphrases, Chen Weiping (2008) gave strategies to improve students’ writing. According to theanalysis of the present situation of comprehensive English teaching, the author advocated thatprefabricated chunks should be permeated through teaching procedures in colleges oruniversities (Chen Dongyan & Liu Baohua, 2009). From the perspective of English teaching,Xu Quan (2010) made a comment on studies about the application of lexical approach. 
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework.........17
3.1 The basis of psychological linguistics............. 17
3.2 The basis of second language acquisition ....... 18
Chapter Four Research Design.............21
4.1 Hypotheses .... 21
4.2 Subjects ......... 21
4.3 Instruments .... 21
4.4 Procedures ..... 23
4.5 Data processing ....... 33
Chapter Five Results and Discussion....35
5.1 Data analysis on questionnaires ............ 35
5.2 Data analysis on pre-test and post-test ............ 44
5.3 Discussion ..... 49
 
Chapter Five Results and Discussion
 
Chapter Five is mainly about results and discussion. Firstly, the author analyzed thepre-questionniare. And then, the author analyzed the post-questionnaire and made acomparison between the pre-questionnaire and the post-questionnaire. Secondly, the authoranalyzed the pre-test and post-test. And she made a comparison between EC (the experimentalclass) and CC (the control class). Then, there were two comparisons about the pre-test and thepost-test of EC and the pre-test and the post-test of CC. At the end of this chapter, there was adiscussion.
 
5.1 Data analysis on questionnaires
There are pre-questionnaires and post-questionnaires. Therefore, there are data analyseson the pre-questionnaire and the post-questionnaire of the experimental class and the controlclass.Answers of Question 1 showed that: 17% of students in EC and 16% of students in CCthought that listening was the most important in the process of English learning; 44% ofstudents in EC and 37% of students in CC thought that speaking was the most important; and26% of students in EC and 33% of students in CC thought that reading was the mostimportant; about writing, only 13% of students in EC and 14% of students in CC thought thatit was the most important. Therefore, the author concluded that students didn’t realize theimportance of writing.Answers of Question 2 showed that: 11% of students in EC and 14% of students in CCthought that English writing was interesting; 25% of students in EC and 23% of students inCC considered that they had little interest in English writing; 47% of students in EC and 38%of students in CC thought that it was just so so; 17% of students in EC and 25% of students inCC held the opinion that English writing was little interesting. So, the author made aconclusion that most of students thought that English writing was not interesting.
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Conclusion
 
In this chapter, the author makes a conclusion about this research. She states her majorfindings of the research. And then, the author puts forward implications and suggestions of theresearch. Finally, the author points out limitations of the research.After lexical approach was applied in English writing teaching, the author had somefindings.Firstly, students’ grades were improved. The average score of EC increased by 0.44 andthe Sig. (2-tailed) of Paired Samples T-test was 0.005 (p<0.05), which proved that studentsmade some progress. The average score of EC was higher than students in CC by 1.56 and theSig. (2-tailed) of T-test for Equality of Means was 0.038 (p<0.05), which proved that therewere obvious differences between EC and CC. And the result of post-test showed thatstudents in EC used more lexical phrases than students in CC. Through the application oflexical approach in English writing teaching, instead of traditional ways to accumulate wordsand grammar points separately, students accumulated lexical phrases in their daily lives andused lexical phrases in English writing. Answers of Question 9 and 10 showed that studentsthought that the key to write a good composition was to master lots of lexical phrases andlexical phrases were helpful for them to write English compositions. Students had realized theimportance of lexical phrases and used them in their compositions.
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References (abbreviated)

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