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农村初中英语课堂中合作学习的需求分析

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本文是一篇英语硕士论文,英语专业学生主要学习英语语言、文学,英美等英语国家历史、政治、经济、外交、社会文化等方面基本理论和基本知识,受到英语听、说、读、写、译等方面的良好的技巧训练,掌握一定的科研方法,具有从事翻译、研究、教学、管理工作的业务水平及较好的素质与能力。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语硕士论文,供大家参考。

 
Chapter OneIntroduction
 
Needs analysis has been under research for almost three decades in China.However, researchers in China have paid much attention to theory-related studies,neglecting the empirical ones. Besides, learners in China are really weak in Englishlearning, especially the learners from rural areas. Therefore, cooperative learning is anew and challenging teaching style, especially for both teachers and learners- in thecountryside. The author expects to find out how cooperative learning helps satisfystudents’ needs in English learning and adjust teacher’s teaching style to meet thestudents’ needs while using cooperative learning. The author hopes that this study willpresent a new perspective on how understanding students’ needs with cooperativelearning. The result of the research will have a positive influence on promotingteacher’s teaching in cooperative learning effectively. This part mainly talks about thefollowing perspective parts of the study: background and purpose, the significance, theresearch questions and the framework of this paper will be presented.
 
1.1 Research Background
So far, the new “National English Curriculum Standards” shows a variety ofconsequences of this reform, and the “student-centered” concept has been known formany years. What’s more, students as the learning subject of participant are in theactivities. They should exchange ideas and experience the knowledge by themselves inthe process of learning. In that case, cooperative learning has been regarded as the mostimportant new model of learning. The teaching guided by those ideas not only caresabout how to teach, but also focuses on how to learn, proposing that learning strategiesand emotional factors are comparatively important in learning. With new curriculumreforms, cooperative learning in English teaching is accordingly proposed. Cooperativelearning should be taken as one of the basic strategies of the new educationalenvironment. Participation is stressed as the basic mode of teaching. Teachers shouldchange the traditional view. Students should be the subject of learning in cooperativelearning.
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1.2 The Significance of this Research
Hutchinson and Waters (1987:34) say, “The big difference between them is not theexistence of a need but rather an awareness of the need.” As for junior middle schoolEnglish teaching and learning, most English teachers feel that most students havedifficulty in English learning. Meanwhile, students feel frustrated about their Englishlearning. The main reason is that the students know little background knowledge aboutEnglish speaking countries; and there is almost no right English learning atmosphere forstudents; especially students do not have effective learning methods and strategies; moststudents have difficulty in memorizing new words because there are so many newwords in one period, especially in reading materials; students have a quite lowmotivation about English learning and they do not have the independent learning ability.Needs analysis is the process of analyzing and surveying learning needs. Whilelearning about the junior school students’ expectations, emotional connections withstudents’ real lives, the teacher should consider the needs and demands of the studentsto keep language teaching a dynamic subject. In order that the teacher can stimulatestudents’ curiosity about new knowledge and the students’ desire to learn something.The main ways are reflection, questionnaire, interview and observation inclassroom and so on. 
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Chapter TwoLiterature Review
 
When talking about cooperative learning, it is known as one of the most popularlearning methods which have more positive impact than traditional learning ways.Cooperative learning is a helpful method in both teaching and learning because it iscertified by many experiments both in China and abroad. As there are so many studiesabout schools in cities, therefore, the author chooses a common school in rural area asan objective. It also exerts a positive influence on both teachers’ teaching and students’progress in growth process and makes the classroom more harmonious.According to Johnson and Holubee (2002), cooperative learning is defined as “theinstructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their ownand each other learning”. Therefore, it is essential and necessary for the author learnabout the Cooperative Learning Theory and Needs Analysis methodology. Then shebegins to investigate students’ needs and apply cooperative learning style well, and shecan get better effective in English teaching.
 
2.1 Definition of Cooperative Learning
The term “cooperative learning” has been defined in variety of ways abroad and inChina. A lot of researchers have attempted to give their own description of cooperativelearning. However, there is no standard definition about it. Cooperative learning startedin America in the 1970s and blossomed into a popular teaching theory system oreducation in western countries. Cooperative Learning is gradually stressed in languageteaching since the 1980s and then Cooperative Learning was widely spread and adoptedin the English teaching and learning. “All for one, one for all” Alexander Dumas statescooperative learning in concise words, cooperative learning has been regarded as one ofthe most significant teaching methodology and it can provide more opportunity forstudents to experience the process of learning and get knowledge by studentsthemselves, and help students to cultivate effective learning strategies and have a goodrelationship between teachers and peers. Here, we can see that student-centered hasbeen proposed. Besides, cooperative learning also can establish a harmonious learningatmosphere and a good relationship between classmates and teachers.Slavin (1980), one of the main representative figures of Cooperative Learningtheory views that Cooperative Learning refers to a sort of teaching methods. During thecooperative learning, students working in small groups help each other to master thebasis English knowledge, and learn about the culture and improve students’ capacityand the language command skills. In English cooperative learning class, students shouldbe assigned to do the preparatory work for the assignment beforehand and be given timeto think about it first by themselves. They then discuss the topic seriously andaccomplish the task together to share peers’ ideas in class. This is done so that studentscan get a right and deeper understanding about the reading materials or learningresource. Teachers should give an objective and right evaluation according to his or herbasic merits and give some positive suggestions to them so that students can keepenthusiastic attitude toward learning and making on-going progress.
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2.2 Theoretical Basis for Cooperative Learning
At present, cooperative learning has been widely adopted in English teachingclassroom because it is established on dependable theoretical basics in many aspects.There are many related theories to support cooperative learning in English teaching and learning.When talking about Constructive Learning Theory, it is generally attributed to JeanPiaget. His Constructive Learning theory (Piaget, 1950) points out that knowledge isaccumulated and delivered only through some specific context. From his research, wecan learn about children’s intelligence development, and to find out children’sintellectual development is the process of schema transformation and construction.Piaget (1950) holds that:“There are four main elements in the learning environment, including context,conversation, collaboration and meaning construction. The “context” here means anenvironment that is helpful for students to construct meaning conversation.“Collaboration” is the whole process of learning, which plays an essential role incollecting, analyzing and evaluating the learning materials. “Conversation” is a veryimportant part in collaboration process. Each member needs to finish the fixed learningtasks through discussion and cooperation. “Meaning construction” is the ultimate aim inthe learning procedure. Students should be led to construct the interrelationship, such asthe common principles or regulations” (He Kekang 2003).
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Chapter Three Methodology of the Research .......... 20
3.1 Research Questions ....... 20
3.2 Participants ......... 20
3.3 Research Methods ......... 21
3.3.1 Questionnaire .......... 21
3.3.2 Interview ...... 22
3.4 Research Procedure ....... 23
3.4.1 Data Collection ....... 23
3.4.2 Data Analysis .......... 24
Chapter Four Findings and Discussion......... 26
4.1 Students’ Target Needs in Cooperative Learning ...... 26
4.2 Students’ Learning Needs in Cooperative Learning .............33
Chapter Five Conclusion.........49
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings..........49
5.2 Implications of the Research.....50
5.3 Limitations ..........51
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research .........51
 
Chapter FourFindings and Discussion
 
This chapter provides the major findings and discussion of the study mainly fromthe descriptive analysis of the students’ target needs and learning needs in CooperativeLearning. In order to gain a better understanding of students’ needs situation, thesespecific areas are examined respectively in the following tables. And notes obtainedfrom interviews were put in the result of the questionnaire to supplement the majorfindings. At the beginning of the research, 44 students from two classes in Grade 8,from Shidi School, Mianzhu city, Sichuan Province, were given the questionnaire andinterview to investigate the students’ target needs and learning needs in cooperativelearning. Because the number of the students is small, all the questionnaires arecollected in time and the eight students are interviewed face to face in the teacher’soffice.
 
4.1 Students’ Target Needs in Cooperative Learning
There are diversified target needs from students in English learning. Target needsinclude main three parts. They are necessities, lacks and wants. Students show differentviewpoints towards English learning. As for target needs, we can make a brief summary.First of all, teachers should make students understand that the purpose of Englishcooperative learning is not only for getting high scores in the examination in junior highschool, but also can learn how to keep a good relationship between peers and learnsomething from many interesting and meaningful things in their school daily life.Therefore, all the students should try their best to take this opportunity to experience theprocess of English learning and enjoy the achievement of English cooperative learning.Secondly, English teachers should keep a watchful eye on the process of learning, andhelp the students to learn English, use new knowledge and understand the meaning ofcooperation. And teachers should treat students as an independent individual personequally and respect every student because students are the subject of learning and theyhave their own emotion and thoughts, while teachers are the conductors and helpers.
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Conclusion
 
This part will make a summary of the research from the following perspective. Itsummarizes the major findings of the study, displays the implications for students’ targetneeds and learning needs in cooperative learning, and recognizes the limitations of thestudy and proposes suggestion for future research.A detailed needs analysis of the results from target learning and learning needsresearch yields the major findings as follow:Firstly, the paper has found that a majority of the students are of medium Englishlevel. Most of the students’ learning motivation is to get high marks and pass theEnglish examination. As for students’ attitude toward cooperative learning, studentshope that English teachers should pay more attention to improving their ability to useEnglish and the four skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing. Students expect tohave basic communication skills when necessary and reach certain level of English fortheir future daily life. They also expect that they can have communication with others inEnglish freely when necessary. They are also eager to learn more English-speakingcountries knowledge and culture. The result of the research shows that cooperativelearning can arouse their interests and help rebuild self-confidence in learning andimprove students’ learning ability. It also helps students to form a good habit andenhance the sense of cooperation between students and teachers.Secondly, through cooperative learning, there is no doubt that students candefinitely release some anxiety and have a relaxing mood to learn English and masterthe knowledge happily and effectively, and they show strong team spirit and improvetheir sense of cooperation in the future life. Cooperative learning transforms thelanguage learning process into one that students develop positive emotional attitude,proactive thinking and bold practice, and improve cross-cultural awareness and theability of independent learning.
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References (abbreviated)

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论文关键字:英语硕士论文 需求分析 初中学校